copper ore concentrate can be smelted

Primary Copper Smelting Area Sources: National Emissions ...

 · Primary copper smelting is the industry which refines copper sulfide ore concentrate from mined ore to produce anode grade copper, using pyrometallurgical processes. Pyrometallurgical processes use high temperature furnaces to smelt or refine ores to produce pure metals or metal oxides. This final rule requires existing primary copper smelters ...

Charge Calculations in Pyrometallurgical Processes

Example – Copper ore is smelted in a reverberatory furnace together with a copper concentrate. The fluxes are pure CaCO 3 and iron ore Reaction: CaCO 3 = CaO + CO 2 Rational Analysis wt% Material Cu 2 S FeS 2 SiO 2 Fe 2 O 3 Copper ore 17.5 67.5 15 Copper concentrate 35 25 40 Iron ore 20 80 SlagCopper ore Matte Reverberatory furnace Flux: CaCO ...

cobalt processing | Uses, Supply, & Facts | Britannica

From copper and nickel processing. Cobalt contained in and smelted with copper concentrate is oxidized along with iron during the final conversion to blister copper. It then enters the slag layer, which can be treated separately, usually in an electric furnace, and the cobalt recovered by reduction with carbon to a copper-iron-cobalt alloy. In ...

Mineral Concentrate Marketing

 · Lead, zinc and copper smelters each having different smelting practices either give a low return, no payment or a penalty for metals adverse to the particular process. For instance, copper contained in a lead concentrate is paid for at or near the price paid for lead while lead in a copper concentrate will return less than 50% of lead price.

Copper Ore

1.2.1 Concentration by Froth Flotation ( Chapters 3 and 4Chapter 3Chapter 4) The copper ores being mined in 2010 are too lean in copper (0.5–2% Cu) to be smelted directly. Heating and melting their huge quantity of waste rock would require prohibitive amounts of hydrocarbon fuel.

Nickel Extraction Processes of Copper-nickel Sulfide Ore ...

 · The copper and nickel concentrate obtained can be directly smelted into high nickel ice. This flotation process is mainly suitable for the copper-nickel sulfide ore whose copper content is lower than the nickel content. Mixed-preferential flotation process. The mixed-preferential flotation process refers to float the copper and nickel together ...

From Ore to Finished Product

4. Beneficiation of Copper Ore. The next step in processing is called beneficiation. This is the first step in concentrating the copper into a more useable form. 5. Smelting and Extraction. The next step in the process flow is smelting for sulfide ore concentrate and solvent extraction for oxide ore …

BACKGROUND REPORT PRIMARY COPPER SMELTING …

concentrate as feed to its furnace. As a result, the concentrate roasting process is essentially obsolete at U.S. primary copper smelting facilities. The traditional reverberatory smelting process as it exists in the U.S. involves the charging of concentrate and a siliceous flux to an externally fired smelting …

A Poor Man''s Method of Smelting Gold | Sciencing

 · You can remove the most common metals found in gold ore (copper, zinc and lead) using elements that bond with oxygen at lower temperatures than gold. This oxidation process will make copper oxide, zinc oxide and lead oxide — all of which are less dense than pure gold and will float to the top of your crucible allowing the slag to be sloughed off.

Low grade ores – Smelt, leach or concentrate?

 · The former involves smelting of the ore or concentrate at high temperatures, while the latter involves leaching the ore or concentrate at relatively low temperatures, including ambient. These two broad processing paths may be broken down further into the following routes, as shown in Fig. 5, for copper and nickel ores:

What is Copper Concentrate?

Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. The universal technique for this concentration is the froth flotation of finely ground ore. Froth flotation involves attaching fine Cu-sulfide mineral elements to bubbles and floating them out of a water–ore …

Copper Refining: From Ore to Market | INN

 · The copper is concentrated further by slurrying the ground ore with water and chemical reagents. In this process, air is blown through the mixture, and the copper floats to the top. The copper …

Copper Concentrates

Copper concentrate is smelted and converted to metallic copper, which allows it to attain forms that can be submitted to further refining, more than 99% pure, as in copper anode and copper blister. The main application of copper anode is to use it as raw material in the process of electrolytic refining, to produce the electrolytic refined ...

Copper Ore Processing Countries

The term copper smelting may refer to this melting step in particular or it may refer somewhat less formally to the entire process overall.Apr 23, 2011 Both ore types can be economically mined, however, the most common source of copper ore is the sulfide ore mineral chalcopyrite, which accounts for about 50 percent of copper production.

Copper Smelting Process

 · Modern copper smelters use processed copper ore fed into a flash furnace, typically fired by oxygen which produces blister copper, being further processed in a converter furnace. Molten copper is poured from here into rectangular moulds, the resulting ingots subjected to electrolysis producing a metal of 99.9% purity. Copper can be recycled indefinitely without the base metal being compromised ...

4-09-98 FACT SHEET PROPOSED AIR TOXICS REGULATION …

copper concentrate that is the raw material for the smelter operations. These metal compounds can potentially be emitted from the smelter operation in several ways. Metal compounds can be emitted as fugitive dust from the handling of ore concentrate prior to the smelting operation. Metals can be emitted from all of the pyrometallic smelting

Adverse effects of 9 elements in iron ore on its smelting ...

 · The minerals badly effected on the iron ore smelting are usually sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, lead, arsenic, zinc, titanium and copper. Generally, they have the following bad effects on smelting: Elements that bad for iron ore smelting. 1 Sulfur (S): it is the most harmful element to iron ore smelting.

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting 12.3.1 General1 Copper ore is produced in 13 states. In 1989, Arizona produced 60 percent of the total U. S. ore. Fourteen domestic mines accounted for more than 95 percent of the 1.45 megagrams (Mg) (1.6 millon tons) of ore produced in 1991. Copper is produced in the U. S. primarily by pyrometallurgical smelting ...

US4802917A

A process for autogenously smelting copper sulfide ore concentrate directly to semi-blister copper in which a calcareous flux is charged directly to an autogenouse furnace along with concentrate and copper-containing coolant. Furnace products are semi-blister copper, calcareous slag …

Copper Smelting Chemistry Tutorial

A typical copper ore contains between 0.5% and 2.0% copper. A high grade ore produces a high yield of metal. A low grade order produces a low yield of metal. Copper can be extracted from sulfide ores (usually higher grade ores) by direct smelting. The earliest evidence of copper smelting occurs in Serbian artefacts dating from around 5000 BC.

The beneficiation process of nickel ore,copper-nickel ...

 · The advantage of this process is that copper concentrate with low nickel content can be directly obtained. 1) Mixed flotation process: used to separate ores with copper lower than nickel, and the obtained copper-nickel mixed concentrate is directly smelted into high matte. 2) Mixing-optimal flotation process:

Smelting

Depending upon the pyrite content in the copper-bearing ore, smelting requires an addition of 2%–4% coke. Because of the development of oxygen technology and spray metallurgy and the shortage of energy, the heat of the concentrate''s own oxidation reaction heat, the heat of slag reaction heat and the oxygen enrichment are used for the spray ...

Primary Copper Smelting: National Emissions Standards for ...

 · On June 12, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated final air toxics standards for the Primary Copper Smelting major sources. Primary copper smelting is the industry which refines copper sulfide ore concentrate from mined ore to produce anode grade copper, using pyrometallurgical processes.

Chapter 7 Energy Use in the Copper Industry

duction of cathode copper. Assuming an ore grade of 0.55 percent and a recovery rate of87.5 6.4 percent copper in the concentrate, concentrat-ing 1 ton of copper ore requires over 200 billion Btu, or approximately 42 million Btu/ton of cath-ode copper.10 Grinding accountsfor roughly 6 0 percent of the total energy consumed in proc-

Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining …

Smelting – Smelting involves the application of heat to a charge of copper ore concentrate, scrap, and flux to fuse the ore and allow the separation of copper from iron and other impurities. The smelter furnace produces two separate molten streams: copper …

Freight Car Friday #47 – MWCX Copper Concentrate Gondolas ...

 · This closeup shot shows a fair amount of load spillage around the top edges of the car; you can see the buildup of the greenish-coloured ore copper ore concentrate in the dust on the side of the car. This car, MWCX 200475, is a good example of the modern gondola on today''s railways, having been built in early 2015.

Processing of Complex Materials in the Copper Industry ...

 · A global copper mine-by-mine review undertaken by ICSG found that the global average copper ore grade was as low as 0.45% copper in reported reserves and only 0.65% copper in 2015 copper mine production. Global weighted average of copper concentrate output in a large sample of plants was around 25% copper in 2015 data.

TACKLING IMPURITIES IN COPPER CONCENTRATES

Table 3 - Chemical Analysis of Mercury-Bearing Copper Concentrates Element Concentrate "A" Concentrate "B" Cu 26 20 Fe 26 27 S 28 38 As + Sb 0.1 4.1 Zn 0.1 5.5 Hg, ppm 200 430 The principal mineralogy of the two concentrates is shown in Table 4.

Ore concentrate and similar topics | Frankensaurus

In 2009, Toquepala produced about 127,000 tons of copper in sulfide concentrates, all smelted at Ilo, with a copper recovery of 97.4%. Toquepala mine - Wikipedia A 15000000 m3 reservoir was filled behind the dam assist the concentrater.

An Overview of Copper Smelting in Southern Africa

Metorex managed the mine and smelter, sourced concentrate feed for the smelter, and marketed the resulting blister copper. O''okiep smelted its own concentrate, as well as concentrate from Maranda and Chibuluma. Concentrate was converted to blister copper at the smelter, and the product was exported, with the metal being refined in Europe.

difference between copper ore and copper concentrate

Copper: How it is Sold and Priced | MarketCap. A typical copper ore would be 0.7% to 2% copper, a typical copper concentrate would grade around 25% to 35% copper. Copper concentrates are either smelted and refined in-house, or sold to custom smelters. The concentrate.

Smelting

Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal. It is a form of extractive metallurgy is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals.Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind.

Copper | Smelting | Copper

In modern copper smelting, a reverberatory furnace is used; concentrated ore and a flux, commonly limestone, are charged into the top, and molten mattea compound of copper, iron, and sulfurand slag are drawn out at the bottom; a second heat treatment, in another (converter) furnace, is necessary to remove the iron from the matte.

Gold Smelting & Refining Process

 · It has been shown that concentrates obtained by gravity devices and cathodes can be smelted directly most the time. Silver-gold concentrates can be smelted too. Under this consideration, a concentrate must contain at least 20 oz/t of gold. Obviously, if the higher grades are better and 50 oz/t is a good average value.

How Hydrometallurgy and the SX/EW Process Made Copper the ...

In the concentrating operations these minerals are separated from the gangue material of the ore, that might contain as little as 0.5% copper to form a concentrate containing 27 to 36% copper. In the smelting operation, the concentrate is fed to a smelter together with oxygen and the copper and iron sulfides are oxidized at high temperature ...

Copper ore concentrate, Processsing, Machinery ...

Copper ore concentrate processing. Because the metal concentration is usually quite low in nonferrous ores, the first stage in mineral production at the mine is ore beneficiation, usually consisting of the processes of milling (crushing and grinding) and concentrating (usually consisting of a series of steps including flotation and dewatering by thickening and filtering).

Copper Concentrates

Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. The universal technique for this concentration is the froth flotation of finely ground ore. Froth flotation involves attaching fine Cu-sulfide mineral elements to bubbles and floating them out of a water–ore …